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HOW STRONG IS YOUR RESISTANCE?As you can see below, no copyright was placed on this material. And since material of this sort has a "habit" of disappearing at most inconvenient moments, we have placed it here on VacLib.org's site for convenient reference.
Collection of Articles from:
Top of How Strong is Your Resistance?
(01) THE TRUTH ABOUT SMALLPOX -- by Dr. Lorraine Day, MD
(02) SMALLPOX VACCINE RESULTS ARE IN -- by Jon Rappoport
(03) SMALLPOX VACCINATION RISKS VERSUS NATURAL HEALING -- by Dr. Vivian Virginia Vetrano
(04) A SMALLPOX OUTBREAK: WHAT TO DO -- by Sherri Tenpenny, DO
(05) SMALLPOX OP IS OUT IN THE OPEN -- by John Rappaport
(06) SMALLPOX VACCINATIONS 'MUST BE VOLUNTARY' -- by Sharon Otterman
(07) MASSIVE SMALLPOX VACCINATION PLAN -- by CBS News
(08) NEW PLAN FOR SMALLPOX ATTACK -- by Sheryl Gay Stolberg with Lawrence K. Altman
(09) BUSH ASKS COURT TO SEAL MMR VACCINE RECORDS -- by Todd Zwillich
(10) THE NEEDLE AND THE DAMAGE DONE -- by Tim Reid
(11) CIA HUNTS IRAQ TIE TO SOVIET SMALLPOX -- by Judith Miller
"The Revolution Has Begun!"Monday, December 16, 2002
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How Strong Is Your Resistance?
(from somewhere in the Deep South)
HOW STRONG IS YOUR RESISTANCE? -- by Hank Patrick, Founder of Liberty League
A pox is upon us, and it's not smallpox. It's a pox of busy little totalitarian minds -- mattoids in government, stooges in allopathic medicine and liars in the controlled press -- all bent on controlling your most personal of property: YOU. Namely, your body, your mind, your will and your rights.
To those who would FORCE you to be injected with their experimental cow pus, you are a mere human petri dish in which to conduct their mad experiments in bioengineering, population control, and social engineering. Joseph Mengele would be proud.
Today's issue of THE FREEDOM UNDERGROUND will tell you everything you ever wanted to know about smallpox and smallpox vaccination -- including the TRUTH.
This article, titled "How Strong Is Your Resistance?," can be taken two ways:
(1) How strong is your immune system, which is ALL YOU NEED to resist smallpox.
(2) How strong is your will to resist tyranny?
After all, is there any real difference -- any FUNDAMENTAL DIFFERENCE -- between the following types of government "shootings"?:
GOVERNMENT SHOOTING A
A government "homeland sekurity" official (armed apparatchik) uses a high-velocity plunger (military weapon) to forcefully deliver (fire) a potentially lethal package (bullet) directly through your skin and into your body;
GOVERNMENT SHOOTING B
A government "health" official uses a low-velocity plunger (hypodermic) to forcefully deliver (inject) a potentially lethal package (experimental cow pus) directly through your skin and into your body.
ANSWER: We don't see ANY difference.
The issue here is one of CONSENT versus FORCE. When the friendly "first responders" come to your front door to jab you with the experimental cow pus, will you resist?
In an article below, Leonard G. Horowitz -- D.M.D., M.A., M.P.H. and internationally known authority in the overlapping fields of public health, behavioral science, emerging diseases, and bioterrorism -- asks:
"Will you run, hide, go underground? Declare religious and medical exemptions from this mechanism of mass murder? Go into hiding, quit valued jobs, run the other way?"
Hank takes this a step further. If none of the above are an option for you and compliance is not in your vocabulary, will you shoot back? Or will you be arrested, handcuffed and taken away to be "quarantined" IN THE VERY DETENTION CAMPS THAT HAVE ALREADY BEEN PREPARED ALL OVER AMERIKA FOR THOSE WHO INTEND TO RESIST ENCROACHING FASCISM IN ALL OF ITS EVIL, UGLY MANIFESTATIONS?
Could the "urgency" to vaccinate everyone with experimental cow pus merely be a RUSE to "quarantine" those very individuals who would one day resist gun confiscation? After all, when potential gun confiscation "resisters" have ALREADY been rounded up in "quarantine camps," confiscation of their weapons becomes moot.
The following articles are presented for your consideration. There is a LOT of information here. You'd better plan on SCHEDULING TIME to sit down and read it all.
(01) THE TRUTH ABOUT SMALLPOX -- by Dr. Lorraine Day, MD
(02) SMALLPOX VACCINE RESULTS ARE IN -- by Jon Rappoport
(03) SMALLPOX VACCINATION RISKS VERSUS NATURAL HEALING -- by Dr. Vivian Virginia Vetrano
(04) A SMALLPOX OUTBREAK: WHAT TO DO -- by Sherri Tenpenny, DO
(05) SMALLPOX OP IS OUT IN THE OPEN -- by John Rappaport
(06) SMALLPOX VACCINATIONS 'MUST BE VOLUNTARY' -- by Sharon Otterman
(07) MASSIVE SMALLPOX VACCINATION PLAN -- by CBS News
(08) NEW PLAN FOR SMALLPOX ATTACK -- by Sheryl Gay Stolberg with Lawrence K. Altman
(09) BUSH ASKS COURT TO SEAL MMR VACCINE RECORDS -- by Todd Zwillich
(10) THE NEEDLE AND THE DAMAGE DONE -- by Tim Reid
(11) CIA HUNTS IRAQ TIE TO SOVIET SMALLPOX -- by Judith Miller
Small Pox: How Bad Is It ... Really?
Here's What The Government WANTS YOU TO BELIEVE!
UN Issues Worldwide Smallpox Terror Alert! according to the The London Observer newspaper's headlines (Oct 21,2001). "Governments around the world have been warned to prepare against a terrorist smallpox attack which could kill millions. The World Health Organization has told them to ensure they can produce enough vaccine to protect their population against the disease, and is preparing to order mass precautionary vaccination of all citizens. "The Observer says smallpox is a serious threat because it is easily passed from person to person, has a fatality rate of up to 90 per cent, can kill in 48 hours and few people have been vaccinated. "Initial smallpox symptoms include fever, severe headache, back and chest pains and intense anxiety. Victims develop blotchy rashes, often with purple lesions, followed by a face rash similar to sunburn and severe scarring. "Death can take from 48 hours to two weeks. There is no treatment"
Here's the REAL TRUTH!
1) Dr. Russell T. Trall, the eminent Natural Hygienist, considered smallpox "as essentially ... not a dangerous disease." He cared for large numbers of patients afflicted with smallpox and never lost a case. Under conventional medical treatment, patients were drugged, bled profusely, smothered in blankets, wallowed in dirty linen, were allowed no water or fresh air, were stuffed with brandy or wine and were medicated with antimony and mercury in large doses.
2) Physicians kept their patients bundled up warm in bed, with the room heated and doors and windows carefully closed, so that not a breath of fresh air could get in, and freely gave large doses of drugs to induce sweating. Many must have died of Heat Stroke!" - - Dr. Shelton, D.C.
3) "For years Dr. Matthew J. Rodermund, M.D. of Wisconsin, offered $10,000 to anyone who could prove scientifically that smallpox is contagious. Nobody ever claimed the money. Charles A.A. Campbell, M.D. of San Antonio, who was for years in charge of an isolation hospital made exhaustive experiments in order to demonstrate that smallpox is contagious, but found that this is not the case." Keki Sidhaw, ND
4) "Both Press and Radio continue to preach that smallpox is a terribly infectious and deadly scourge. They never tell us that" - - provided no mischief be done either by physician or nurse, it is the most safe and slight of all disease. (Dr. Thomas Sydenham) Lionel Dole
5) "As a matter of fact, perhaps it is safe to say that not more than 10 per cent of the people ever would take smallpox if sleeping in the same bed with an infected smallpox victim." Dr. Hay
6) "Smallpox is considered one of the most virulent of contagious diseases, and it is generally believed that persons exposed are almost invariably attacked, unless protected by vaccination. This is one of the most stupendous exaggerations to be found in medical literature. My experience has been that a very few people take it when exposed to it." John Tilden, M.D.
7) Dr. Bridges in his Report, observes that "of 796 visitors who paid 1118 visits, only 3 were afterwards admitted into the hospital with smallpox" ... Dr. Bernard, of the Stockwell Hospital, writes "1056 visits were paid into the wards of the hospital. It is interesting to be able to say that, as far as I have hard, no one caught small-pox thereby."
8) An Obstinate Baby -- At a public meeting held in the Town Hall, Derby, March 2, 1871, a working man caused much amusement by asking Dr. Greaves how it was that when four out of five of his children were down with smallpox, the fifth, unvaccinated, would not take the disease, although placed between two of the others in bed.
9) Since only 10% of the world was ever vaccinated against smallpox, it is ludicrous for the medical doctors to claim credit with vaccination, as scientist Glen Dettman points out.
10) Wallace and Tebb proved with government statistics that the first 100 years of smallpox vaccination was a complete failure. Epidemics of smallpox followed vaccination which was why they repealed the compulsory vaccination law. And even if they had eliminated smallpox, the deaths from other causes rose to compensate, in all likelihood caused by vaccination:
11) The prevailing medical opinion is that smallpox is highly infectious
and serious, but looking at 19th century books on smallpox vaccination it
doesn't look infectious at all, and it looks like Dr. Campbell was right
when he said it was transmitted by the bite of a bedbug, as overcrowding
was THE MAIN FACTOR (most affected city families live in one room) in
outbreak and spread of smallpox, along with the main cause of smallpox -
- poverty and poor hygiene.
"I do know that brain complications occurred within one to six weeks of the original smallpox vaccination, most frequently after the first dose, and that the reaction rate was between 1 in 159 and 1 in every 6,500 vaccinated persons."
According to Fisher, vaccination-related brain complications were most
common in children under 2 years of age, and 50 percent of those children
who developed the complications died from them. She also said 35 percent
of adults who developed brain complications from the smallpox vaccine
Toxicity to the kidneys resulting in kidney failure leading to dialysis
and death, abdominal pain, sarcoma (cancer), sepsis (generalized total
body infection), death, congestive heart failure, hypertension, shock,
fainting, rapid heart rate, migraine, colitis, dysphagia (difficulty
swallowing) fecal incontinence, enlarged liver and spleen, jaundice,
liver damage, pancreatitis, gastrointestinal bleeding, a blood cell panel
indistinguishable from some types of leukemia, amnesia, convulsions,
delirium, dementia, depression, hallucinations, hemiplegia (paralysis on
one side of the body) asthma, hemoptysis (coughing up blood),
pneumothorax (collapsed lung) and many more.
Cidofovir (Vistide) is VERY carcinogenic (causes cancer). Normal two-year
studies in rats and mice could not be carried out. They had to be
terminated at 19 weeks because so many female rats developed breast
cancer (mammary adenocarcinomas), many of which were detected after only
What is the Answer?
A person with a properly functioning immune system will NOT contract
smallpox. Remember, in EVERY epidemic, there are a lot of people who
don't get the disease. Why do some people get sick and others don't? The
problem is NOT with the germ (the bacteria or virus), but with the immune
Germs don't cause disease anymore than flies cause garbage. Flies don't
cause garbage. Garbage attracts flies!
This is explained on my videos "Drugs Never Cure Disease" and
"Sorting Through the Maze of Alternative Medicine: what works, what
doesn't and why!" The immune system is kept healthy by following the
Ten Step Natural Heath Plan as I discuss on my videos "You Can't
Improve on God" and "Diseases Don't Just Happen." Don't
Accept the Deceptions of the Mass Media!
I interject this foreword to alert you to the additional support cited
below for the thesis raised earlier that the smallpox vaccination program
is part of a genocidal agenda facilitated by the Bush administration's
"War on Terrorism" and their current efforts to
"immunize" the population against smallpox and later anthrax.
In reality, this policy aims to induce chronic illness, additional
healthcare expenditures (including pharmaceutical sales) and, ultimately,
population reduction in America. Given the information below, and far
more published elsewhere, this is certainly the anticipated outcome of
this "preventative plan" for homeland insecurity. The
"additional support," I refer to, comes from identifying Baylor
University and their College of Medicine as the site of this initial
The following information was compiled for the book Healing Codes for the
Biological Apocalypse (Tetrahedron Publishing Group, 1999;
Toxicity to the kidneys resulting in kidney failure leading to dialysis and death, abdominal pain, sarcoma (cancer), sepsis (generalized total body infection), death, congestive heart failure, hypertension, shock, fainting, rapid heart rate, migraine, colitis, dysphagia (difficulty swallowing) fecal incontinence, enlarged liver and spleen, jaundice, liver damage, pancreatitis, gastrointestinal bleeding, a blood cell panel indistinguishable from some types of leukemia, amnesia, convulsions, delirium, dementia, depression, hallucinations, hemiplegia (paralysis on one side of the body) asthma, hemoptysis (coughing up blood), pneumothorax (collapsed lung) and many more.
Cidofovir (Vistide) is VERY carcinogenic (causes cancer). Normal two-year studies in rats and mice could not be carried out. They had to be terminated at 19 weeks because so many female rats developed breast cancer (mammary adenocarcinomas), many of which were detected after only 6 doses.
What is the Answer?
A person with a properly functioning immune system will NOT contract smallpox. Remember, in EVERY epidemic, there are a lot of people who don't get the disease. Why do some people get sick and others don't? The problem is NOT with the germ (the bacteria or virus), but with the immune system.
Germs don't cause disease anymore than flies cause garbage. Flies don't cause garbage. Garbage attracts flies!
This is explained on my videos "Drugs Never Cure Disease" and "Sorting Through the Maze of Alternative Medicine: what works, what doesn't and why!" The immune system is kept healthy by following the Ten Step Natural Heath Plan as I discuss on my videos "You Can't Improve on God" and "Diseases Don't Just Happen." Don't Accept the Deceptions of the Mass Media!
I interject this foreword to alert you to the additional support cited below for the thesis raised earlier that the smallpox vaccination program is part of a genocidal agenda facilitated by the Bush administration's "War on Terrorism" and their current efforts to "immunize" the population against smallpox and later anthrax. In reality, this policy aims to induce chronic illness, additional healthcare expenditures (including pharmaceutical sales) and, ultimately, population reduction in America. Given the information below, and far more published elsewhere, this is certainly the anticipated outcome of this "preventative plan" for homeland insecurity. The "additional support," I refer to, comes from identifying Baylor University and their College of Medicine as the site of this initial study.
The following information was compiled for the book Healing Codes for the Biological Apocalypse (Tetrahedron Publishing Group, 1999;
It is also well known that this past president, father to the current president, has served in an official capacity at Baylor University for some time. Not long before becoming CIA director, certain intelligence regarding Tanox's collaborative studies with Baylor College of Medicine concerning Mycoplasma infections and related vaccinations was available to the elder Bush.
Tanox was also closely linked to Dr. Shyh-Ching Lo, who, under employment by The Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, isolated and patented a "Pathogenic Mycoplasma" originally taken from an AIDS patient, that somehow contaminated many of the vaccines given to allied military personnel traveling to the Middle East in lieu of "Operation Desert Storm." Only the French soldiers who did not receive the American made vaccines did not develop GWS during this earlier war with Iraq.
Further, what would seem inconceivable without seeing the documents reprinted in Healing Codes for the Biological Apocalypse, Tanox and Baylor College of Medicine first tested their Mycoplasma-infected vaccines on Huntsville, TX prisoners. As a result, the prisoners, and others in the community with whom the prisoners made contact, developed GWS long before the Gulf War. Thus, GWS could have been, and probably was, predicted and effected.
Furthermore, evidence compiled by lawyers for the class of people sickened by Mycoplasma incognitas and related illnesses, from Huntsville, Texas, revealed more astonishing documents. These, also published in Healing Codes for the Biological Apocalypse, showed that Baylor College of Medicine investigators collaborated on studies of vaccinated Huntsville prison inmates beginning in 1968. Mycoplasma inoculations, as well as Mycoplasma vaccination studies, were listed as having begun in 1970 under U.S. Army contracts. Incredibly, Baylor's contract literally raised the specter of "ethnic cleansing" or racial genocide as it proved cervical cancer studies comparing Christian versus Muslim women, as well as Jewish versus Black women, were in progress.
Thus, to have this Bush administration authorized smallpox vaccine study be conducted at Baylor, where the senior Bush has served in an official capacity, with imput from the Tanox-linked College of Medicine is chilling. This is especially so considering the fact that today, unlike the early 1970s when the early Mycoplasma studies began, Mycoplasma is now considered among the most common vaccine contaminants. It is also currently linked to the recent onset of pandemic Chronic Fatigue Immune Dysfunction Syndrome and many other illnesses, including certain expressions of HIV/AIDS.
In conclusion, as I wrote elsewhere and said often, if you see "first responders" coming to inoculate you with "cow pus," which is virtually what the smallpox vaccination is in its purest unadulterated form, run away and hide.
Monday, December 09, 2002
MSNBC reports. The volunteers who got the shot were VERY healthy to begin with. One researcher, Kathy Edwards, called them the "crème de la crème."
Okay? So get this. "Yet when she [Edwards] inoculated them with smallpox vaccine, arms swelled, temperatures spiked and panic spread [at Baylor University]. It was the same at clinics in Iowa, Tennessee, and California."
Stats: After the shot, one-third of the volunteers missed at least a day of work or school. 75 out of 200 experienced high fever. "Several were put on antibiotics because physicians worried that their blisters signaled a bacterial infection."
This article was provided courtesy of Dr. Leonard G. Horowitz and Tetrahedron Publishing Group, 206 North 4th Avenue, Suite 147, Sandpoint, Idaho 83864. http://www.tetrahedron.org
Toll free order line: 888-508-4787; Office telephone: 208-265-2575; FAX: 208-265-2775
E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org See also:
(03) SMALLPOX VACCINATION RISKS VERSUS NATURAL HEALING OF SMALLPOX
I say "grave hoax" because there is no rational public health value in "mandating" a vaccine most of which dates back to the 1950s, has been diluted five times for current consumption, without any scientific justification that it may be effective against ANY modern form of hyper-weaponized smallpox that derives from bioweapons laboratories in Iraq, North Korea, or Russia, as Bush administration and health officials have been warning, with its milieu of health and life-threatening consequences no less.
I say "genocidal scam" since the terms best fit the promotion of this alleged preventative. The mass inoculation outcomes are consistent with the strict definition of genocide that includes "the mass enslaving and killing of people for economics, politics and/or ideology." In this case the enslavement comes in the form of chronic degenerative diseases induced by the vaccine's side effect, enslaving people to drugs for the "management" of their diseases that effect mortality -- the mass killing of people, in this case representing all races and religions.
Clearly, the ideology expressed by most scientists and medical clinicians who wrote their considered opinions to the FDA last summer does not support this current genocidal policy. The consensus proclaimed that mass smallpox vaccinations would be contraindicated during these troubled times. At most, "we" health care professionals proclaimed, 15,000 "front line defenders" might wish to receive this vaccine. (Even this was, in my opinion, tragic.) Two days after that consensus was reached, the medical deities (MDs) representing Bush administration and pharmaceutical industry interests upped the number of targeted "front line defenders," without any logical justification, to 500,000 where it stands at the time of this writing. (Dec. 6, 2002)
Thus, the word "scam" adequately applies to this ruse, while the apt term genocide might be more specifically stated as "iatrogenocide" -- physician induced injury and death deriving from professional negligence (a scatomatous state of ignorance associated with a dereliction of duty to learn the whole truth) and homicidal behavior consistent with "Manchurian candidates" for a global petro-chemical/pharmaceutical population controlling elite.
WAKE UP FOOLS! Declare religious and medical exemptions from this mechanism of mass murder. Go into hiding, quit valued jobs, run the other way. Do anything and everything you need to do to avert this catastrophy. Do I make myself clear?
And if you hear this, but fail to receive it, then go ahead in your stubborn ignorance, get vaccinated with this cow pus -- the world needs fewer fools.
Smallpox -- by Dr. Vivian Virginia Vetrano
Not too long ago Fox News showed us a picture of a man who was covered with smallpox pustules on his arms, face, legs and abdomen. The pustules were big, black, ugly, scabby and closely compacted. He looked like he was a monster from some other world. It was enough to scare me, were it not for the fact that I know that it was drug treatment that caused that ugly picture and not the disease at all. The cause of those ugly marks was carbolic acid that had been used to kill the supposed germ that caused the eruptive rash.
Who are the terrorists? The pharmaceutical companies or the Taliban? Because of what the terrorists may or may not do, the pharmaceutical industry (the largest industry in the world), is gearing us up for mandatory vaccinations, specially for certain people in areas that may be targeted by the terrorists. The authorities claim that we will be safe from terrorists attacks using the pox virus because there are adequate stockpiles of cultivated smallpox viruses in Russia and in the USA to make most all the vaccines "needed."
It is claimed by medical historians that the vaccination process wiped out smallpox throughout the world. However, the truth is that compulsory vaccination was abandoned because more deaths were caused by the vaccinations than there were cases of smallpox. A slight of the hand trick was used to foster the claim that smallpox was eradicated by the vaccination practice. Everyone who had been vaccinated and who developed smallpox was diagnosed as having chicken pox!
[Dr. Horowitz notes that smallpox was never fully eradicated since monkey pox, genetically 92 percent identical to the variola virus associated with smallpox, has persisted.]
The doctors who were interviewed on recent television shows admit that the vaccine may cause many serious side-effects and that a certain number of persons will develop painful and sometimes lethal sequelae. Yet, they advise that it is better to take the chance and be vaccinated in spite of these dangers.
Edward Jenner, a notorious fake and quack, is credited with having "discovered" vaccination. However, it was a practice of many ancient peoples long before his time. Savage and barbaric tribes in various parts of the world practiced inoculation even before Jenner's time. It is conjectured to have begun in India and then spread to Africa and Europe. Lady Mary Wortley Montague, wife of the British Ambassador to the Ottoman Court in l7l7 introduced the practice to Europe. But, due to its proven evils, one of which was an increase in smallpox in England, the practice was abolished in l840.
It is pertinent that James Phipps, the eight year old boy vaccinated by Jenner in l896, died at the age of 20. He had been re-vaccinated twenty times. Jenner's own son who had also been vaccinated more than once died at the young age of twenty-one. Both succumbed to tuberculosis, a condition that some researchers have linked to the smallpox vaccine. (Eleanor McBean, The Poisoned Needle, 28,29,66 ).
According to the medical profession, smallpox or variola is an acute highly infectious and contagious disease characterized by a specific rash. According to past and present Natural Hygienic practitioners smallpox is primarily a disease brought about by gastrointestinal putrescence. Fermenting and rotting food in the intestinal tract enervates, and causes increased digestive impairment accompanied by increased systemic toxemia.
The toxins are from the absorption of the fermentation products formed in the intestinal tract. Since those who overeat, especially on animal products, are enervated, meaning they lack normal nerve function, all the organs of elimination are functioning on a lower physiological level and greater toxicity ensues. Toxins from decomposing animal foods are highly irritating, so the body has to get rid of them quickly and must use extraordinary means since the organs of elimination are not functioning well. Therefore, the poisons are carried by the blood to the skin and the body eliminates them in various forms of skin eruptions.
Smallpox is about as contagious as stumbling over a rock. Dr. Herbert M. Shelton slept in the same bed with his brother while the latter was in the so-called infectious stage with vesicles all over. Yet Dr. Shelton did not develop smallpox.
Smallpox begins with the same symptoms that many acute diseases do; such as chills, fever, backache, and vomiting. This is indicative of a common cause and a common way to deal with the cause. The body is a magnificent ecosystem and when it finds abnormal and extraneous substances anywhere within its domain, it creates a higher temperature, purposely, to overcome the foreign proteins, toxic substances, viruses, bacteria or other microorganisms. Whatever is upsetting the ecosystem must be corrected by the organism itself. It needs no alien "cures." The symptoms should not be "cured." To suppress these symptoms assures that some other worse problem will develop.
Some substances, such as an excess of protein putrefactive products, are so toxic that it is urgent to eliminate them immediately. The papular eruption of smallpox is purposely created and chosen as the correct channel at the time for the elimination of these types of noxious substances. Furthermore, the body may not have the specific enzymes to biodegrade whatever it is. Instead of being taken care of by the liver or the kidneys the body chooses to eject them through the skin. Vicarious eliminations such as this are often natural emergency measures.
Smallpox begins with chills, fever, backache, headache and vomiting. A fever of l03 to l04 degrees F is customary. The high fever increases the healing activities of the cells, and it is a most efficient way to accomplish the needed detoxification. This means that the toxins are now out of the functioning cells and in the blood near the skin. The body no longer needs to speed up cellular metabolism in order to cast out the extraneous substances and the fever subsides. In about two days the fever, and other symptoms subside. This is when the inflammatory rash appears. It turns into an elevation of the skin called a papule. The blister becomes dimpled or umbilicated. The rash and the development of the papules indicate that the irritants or toxic substances have been removed by the hyperactive, feverish cells and carried to the skin to be cast out.
Next the little papules become vesicles, like a blister, except that each papule has a little dimple in it. This is the so- called stage that is supposed to be infective or contagious, should anyone touch the person having smallpox. After the vesicles are formed, they may become pustules filled with white blood cells if the individual is extra toxic. The white blood cells are there to destroy the toxins in the vesicles. But, this stage would never be reached if cared for hygienically. The papules dry up and form scabs that eventually fall off. When treated improperly they will leave a scar.
It is pertinent to recognize that when the eruption begins, the fever subsides. The patient would normally be on the road to recovery were it not for the medications given by the doctor. Medical treatment however, consists in using something that kills the microbes which they assume cause the rash, so it has to be something such as a disinfectant that destroys cell life. This is consistent with their medical dogma.
Therefore, in the past, the profession applied gauze that had been soaked in antiseptic solutions such as phenol (carbolic acid) or bichloride of mercury ( aka mercuric chloride and corrosive sublimate). Both these agents, carbolic acid and mercuric chloride are corrosive.
After applying the gauze, soaked in either carbolic acid or mercuric chloride, to the lesions, they were covered with more gauze. Being tightly wrapped with gauze, the exudate from the vesicle or papule was retained in the lesion and not allowed to drain away when it ruptured. Naturally, bacteria are going to invade this lesion to clean up the excreted matter.
This corrosive treatment also destroyed living tissues including the protective phagocytic white blood cells and the surrounding skin and subcutaneous tissues. A high second fever was urgently needed to once again begin warfare on the extraneous poisons and the invading bacteria.
Either of the two corrosive drugs used can now ooze its way into the vital domain and impede normal function of all the cells in the body; while completely annihilating many. Ugly black confluent pustules mar the skin. The rash gets worse. Vesicles turn into pustules. The pustules become swollen and more inflamed. The inflammation around them spreads and the lesions fuse together. These pathological effects were caused by the drugs.
It is clear that the condition worsens because of the treatment. The primary symptoms, i.e. the fever, chills, headache, and backache were suppressed by pharmaceuticals. The stifling of symptoms with medication prevented the body from completing its job of cleansing, and increased the internal toxemia. As a result, the umbilicated blisters with clear fluid in them became pustules filled with dead and dying tissues and white blood cells. The change to a pustule is the direct result of the damaging effects of medications whether taken internally or applied to the skin. It is incredible that the physicians did not recognize the lethality of their practice. But, then, they do not recognize it today either. They are blinded by bygone theories.
These substances may have killed microorganisms but they also killed human tissues and in reality caused the pustules and all the terrible complications and symptoms thought to be caused by the germ. Let me emphasize, the symptoms thought to be smallpox are symptoms caused by the treatment. They were so yesterday just as they are today and always will be in the future as long as we insist on clinging to the idea that disease is something "caught" and that symptoms must be gotten rid of by unnatural means. As long as we try to eradicate disease with anything, and especially man-made chemicals, we will suffer more than if we merely put up with the symptoms.
All the various treatments to kill microbes which are "causing" the disease, are killing the patient. They are not permitting the body to eliminate toxins or restore the blood and tissues to their normal healthy condition. All treatments, no matter how benign they are claimed to be, impede the recovery process itself. By using treatments of any kind and getting rid of a rash by rash means, or to doctor it in any way, is the disastrous blunder that causes horrible side-effects, more disease and even death.
Hemorrhagic or what is known as "black smallpox" is an even more serious type of smallpox and the patient often died. Again, this serious type of smallpox was directly caused by the cell-killing drugs. Pustules often developed in the throat and mouth. When an acidic drug is placed on living tissues, it kills them. The skin and mucous membranes are already inflamed and are less protective than normal skin. Therefore, the destructive acids can be absorbed and cause greater internal toxemia. Carbolic acid or mercuric chloride caused the hemorrhaging of the skin and also hemorrhaging into the pustule. Either of the corrosive drugs also destroyed the kidney cells and caused bloody urine noted in many hapless smallpox patients.
There were also many serious complications of this type of treatment in addition to the common ordinary ones that were erroneously thought to be symptoms of smallpox, but we won't go into them now.
From time immemorial people have been frightened of disease. It was a curse, an evil spirit, or evil demon that caused the problem. Also from time immemorial people have thought it necessary to exorcize the disease, to placate and appease the evil spirit or demon, to give sacrifices to some god in order to get the demon or evil spirit out of them. In modern times we do the same. We have not grown in knowledge. We just put the evil spirits in the magician's top hat and pulled out the evil germs and evil viruses. We still exorcize, placate, appease, and eradicate the evil microbe or evil virus. Whatever symptoms we have, they are felt to be extraneous, foreign and not from us, so they must be eradicated or extirpated. We still fear death from the simplest of diseases. Whatever it is, it must be extirpated or eradicated. We do it not with incantations but with substances much more evil than anything used in the past.
If individuals kept themselves clean, but did not take off the scabs until they fell off naturally, there would be no unsightly pock-marks. People are always too anxious to pull scabs away. To do so is to expose the lesion to the atmosphere before the skin has completely healed below it. The skin then has to quickly heal over before it has completed restoring the underlying tissues. This, naturally leaves a pit or scar. The extensive boils and gangrene that regularly occurred would not have taken place had no corrosive drugs been used.
If you think those symptoms are bad, and that we do not use any medicine so lethal as corrosive sublimate and carbolic acid today, you'd better rethink the problem. Today's drugs are even more lethal because they are designed to be easily absorbed, and to spread to every tissue and cell in the body and kill cells all over the body. Do not put your hope in medical "care". The only care you need is a healthy body and to let it do its thing.
You do not have to fear smallpox, even if you should develop it, as long as you immediately quit eating and go to bed and rest, drinking pure water only when thirsty. Smallpox is a disease of the bon-vivant, epicurean, who overeats on a daily basis, especially on animal foods. The condition of enervation is built by anyone who does not secure sufficient rest and sleep to permit the elimination of endogenic and exogenic toxins, and for the restoration of the nervous system. Once the stage of enervation is established digestion is further impaired and the body is flooded with fermentation and decomposition products from the intestines. This is what is called Toxemia, and Toxicosis. Toxicosis makes it exigent and imperative that these toxins be eliminated immediately by extraordinary means, such as through the skin.
Every single cell in your body is capable of eliminating and destroying
various microorganisms and their waste products, as well as man-made
organic products, but most man-made products are more toxic than those
made by bacteria and they cause more damage than bacterial waste
products. It can be disastrous when the body is overwhelmed by substances
that do not belong inside it, and which the body cannot use under any
circumstance of life. And this is what happens when diseases are
"treated." Your body is inundated with toxic substances and it
Leonard G. Horowitz, D.M.D., M.A., M.P.H.is an internationally known authority in the overlapping fields of public health, behavioral science, emerging diseases, and bioterrorism. He received his doctorate in medical dentistry from Tufts University School of Dental Medicine in 1977, was awarded a post- doctoral fellowship in behavioral science at the University of Rochester, earned a Master of Public Health degree from Harvard University, and another Master of Arts degree in health education from Beacon College, all before joining the research faculty at Harvard. Dr. Horowitz is best known for the monumental national bestselling book, "Emerging Viruses: AIDS & Ebola -- Nature, Accident or Intentional?" (1-888-508-4787)http://www.nmaseminars.com
"We interrupt the current programming to bring you this important news update ... there has been a reported case of smallpox in Washington, D.C. ..."
What will happen next?
The press has done its job over the last few months reinforcing the belief that an epidemic is about to occur, potentially causing millions of deaths. Americans thousands of miles from Washington will demand the smallpox vaccine, a vaccine with the highest risk of complications of any vaccine ever manufactured and with a dubious track record for success.
However, because you are informed, you will have a different response. You will not panic. You will turn off the TV. You won't listen to your hysterical neighbors. And more importantly, you won't rush to be vaccinated. Here's why:
On June 20, 2002,I attended the Center for Disease Control's (CDC) meeting of the Advisory Committee for Immunization Practices (ACIP) and listened to one and a half days of testimony prior to posting the recommendations for smallpox vaccination that are currently being considered by the CDC and the Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS.)
Many testimonies and comments were presented by public participants and by various physicians and researchers associated with the CDC. Noting that two weeks have past since the June 20th meeting and the media has still not reported on this historic event, I decided it was imperative to report the content and outcome of this meeting to the general public. After reading this report you will gain a new perspective on smallpox and, hopefully, in the event of an outbreak, you will understand that you have nothing to fear.
Generally accepted facts:
Generally accepted "facts" about smallpox include:
As it turns out, these "accepted facts" are not the "real facts."
Myth 1: Smallpox is highly contagious
Even if a person is exposed to a known bioterrorist attack with smallpox, it doesn't mean that he will contract smallpox. The signs and symptoms of the disease will not occur immediately, and there is time to plan. The infection has an incubation period of 3 to 17 days,[i] and the first symptom will be the development of a high fever (>101° F), accompanied by nausea, vomiting, headache, severe abdominal cramping and low back pain. The person will be ill and most likely bed-ridden; not out mixing with the general public.
Even with a fever, it is critically important to realize that at this point the person is still not contagious. In fact, the fever may be caused by something else, such as the flu.
However, if a smallpox infection is developing, the characteristic rash will begin to develop within two to four days after the onset of the fever. The person becomes contagious and has the ability to spread the infection only after the development of the rash. "The characteristic rash of variola major is difficult to misdiagnose," stated Walter A. Orenstein, M.D., Director of the National Immunization Program (NIP) at the CDC. The classic smallpox rash is a round, firm pustule that can spread and become confluent. The lesions are all in the same stage of development over the entire body and appear to be distributed more on the palms, soles and face than on the trunk or extremities.
ACTION ITEM: In the event of an exposure, it is imperative that you do everything you can to improve the functioning of your immune system so that an "exposure" does not have to result in an "outbreak."
a. Stop eating all foods that contain refined white sugar products, since sugar inhibits the functioning of your white blood cells, your first line of defense.[ii]
(There are many other health-conscious dietary considerations to consider, but that is beyond the scope of this article.)
b. Start taking large doses of Vitamin C. Vitamin C has been proven in hundreds of studies to be effective in protecting the body from viral infections,[iii]including smallpox.[iv] For an extensive scientific review on the us eof this nutrient and a "dosing recipe", read "Vitamin C, The Master Nutrient, by Sandra Goodman, Ph.D.http://www.positivehealth.com/permit/Articles/Nutrition/vitcpre.htm
c. If you develop a fever, you still have time to plan. Purchase enough fresh, organic produce and filtered water to last three weeks. Move the kids to grandma's or the neighbor's house.
d. Remember: YOU MAY NOT GET THE INFECTION AND YOU ARE NOT CONTAGIOUS UNTIL YOU GET THE RASH!
Myth 2: Smallpox is easily spread by casual contact with an infected person. Smallpox will not rapidly disseminate throughout the community. Even after the development of the rash, the infection is slow to spread. "The infection is spread by droplet contamination and coughing or sneezing are not generally part of the infection. Smallpox will not spread like wildfire," said Orenstein. He stated that the spread of smallpox to casual contacts is the "exception to the rule." Only 8%of cases in Africa were contracted by accidental contact.
Transmission of smallpox occurs only after intense contact, defined as "constant exposure of a person that is within 6-7 feet for a minimum of 6-7 days."[v] Dr. Orenstein reported that in Africa, 92% of all cases came from close associations and in India, all cases came from prolonged personal contact. Dr. Tom Mack from the University of Southern California stated that in Pakistan, 27% of cases demonstrated no transmission to close associates. Nearly 37% had a transmission of only one generation, meaning that the second person to contract smallpox did not pass it onto the third person. These statistics directly contradict models that predict an exponential spread to millions.
Even without medical care, isolation was the best way to stop the spread of smallpox in Third World, population dense areas. With a slow transmission rate and an informed public, Mack estimated that the total number of smallpox cases in America would be less than 10, a far cry from the millions postulated by the press.
Dr. Kuritsky said at the CDC Public Forum on Smallpox on June 8 in St. Louis, "Given the slow transmission rate and that people need to be in close contact for nearly a week to spread the infection, the scenario in which a terrorist could infect himself with smallpox and contaminate an entire city by walking through the streets touching people is purely fiction."
Point to ponder:
Myth #3: The death rate from smallpox is 30%
Mack stated that even with poor medical care, the case fatality rate in adults was "much lower than is generally advertised" and thought to be 10-15%.He said that the statistics were "loaded with children that had a much higher fatality," making the average death rate reported to be much higher. Amazingly, he revealed his opinion that even without mass vaccination, "smallpox would have died out anyway. It just would have taken longer."
Even so, people died. Why? After all, smallpox is a skin disease and "other organs are seldom involved." [vi] I posed this question to the committee on two separate occasions. Kathi Williams of the National Vaccine Information Center asked this question at the Institute of Medicine meeting on June 15th.On June 20, an answer was finally forth coming when a member of the ACIP committee said, "That is a good question. Does anyone know the actual cause of death from smallpox?"
At that point, Dr. D.A. Henderson, from the John Hopkins University Department of Epidemiology volunteered a comment. Dr. Henderson directed the World Health Organization's global smallpox eradication campaign (1966-1977) and helped initiate WHO's global program of immunization in 1974. He approached the microphone and stated, "Well, it appears that the cause of death of smallpox is a 'mystery.'" He stated that a medical resident had been asked to do a complete review of the literature and "not much information" was found. It is postulated that the people died from a" generalized toxemia" and that those with the most severe forms of smallpox–the hemorrhagic or confluent malignant types–died of complications of skin sloughing, similar to a burn. However, he concluded by saying, "it's frustrating, because we don't really know."
COMMENT: I find this to be extremely frightening. If we knew why people died when they contracted smallpox, perhaps current medical technology could treat the complications, making the death rate much lower. Considering that the last known case of smallpox in the U.S. was in Texas in 1949, continuing to report that smallpox has a 30% death rate is similar to saying that all heart attacks are fatal. Based on 1949 technology, that would be accurate reporting. But in 2002, all heart attacks are NOT fatal. Neither would smallpox have a mortality rate of 30%.
Myth #4: There is no treatment for smallpox
It is important to note that there are several different presentations of a smallpox infection. The most common is called "ordinary discrete" smallpox, occurring in more than 40% of the cases. The outbreak is seen as a small scattering of pustules distributed across the body. The person with this type of smallpox needs minimal medical care and the reported death rate is <10%.[ix]
For mild cases of smallpox, adequate hydration and anti-fever products are essential for comfort and maintaining a temperature below 102°F. Keeping the skin clean to prevent secondary bacterial infections is also important. A 1927 Textbook of Medicine recommends applying gauzed soaked in carbolic acid to "decrease itching and prevent extensive scarring." [x] Carbolic acid is used acutely for burns that tend to ulcerate and other skin conditions that cause burning or prickling pain. Homeopathic forms of carbolic acid are also available.
For the severe complications of smallpox, modern day treatment options are available. The hemorrhagic type of smallpox, occurring in approximately 3% of cases, presents as hypotensive shock and can be treated accordingly. In another 3% of serious cases, the confluent-type has extensive skin involvement. These patients can be treated the same as a burn patient. All severe cases need to be treated for dehydration and watched for signs of bacterial suprainfection.
Research done by Dr. Peter Havens, MS, MD from the Medical College of Wisconsin proposed that death from smallpox was due to multisystem organ failure, a complication of an untreated acute cytokine (inflammatory) response. Massive oxidative stress occurs, leading to free-radical damage in the kidneys and other internal organs. However, Dr. Havens estimates that modern medical technology would indeed decrease the death rate, to possibly as low as 2-3%.
COMMENT: The treatment of choice for severe free-radical stress is high dose intravenous Vitamin C. If conventional medicine would recognize the value of this treatment, they would also be forced to realize mass vaccination is simply not necessary.
Treating severely ill patients would require hospitalization and unfortunately, smallpox spreads the most quickly in the hospital setting due to poor isolation techniques. In addition, most patients in hospitals are ill and immunosuppressed by disease or medication, making them more susceptible to infection. Dr. Mike Lane, former director of the CDC's smallpox eradication program in the 1970s, said severely ill smallpox patients could be treated in a suburban motel or remote government building. "You can bring care to the patient if you elect to use the Motel 6 on the edge of town" rather than put smallpox victims in a hospital where the disease could spread to patients with weakened immune systems.
Side bar with Dr. Mike Lane:
"I would rather vaccinate them and take my chances treating the potential complications. In India, we vaccinated everyone. The only medical contraindication was leprosy, and we sometimes vaccinated them. I'm sure that we killed a few people, but we did the best that we could." Pressed the issue further by saying, "if the death rate really is 30% (which I doubt), doesn't that mean the survival rate is 70%? Shouldn't that person have the right to play the odds with his health if he chose to?" His answer was the same: "If the person is exposed, there will be NO exceptions, medical or otherwise. Those people in the first ring–regardless of health status MUST be vaccinated."
That means that all people with medical contraindications – organ transplants, cancer, HIV, eczema and other skin conditions – would be vaccinated, even it was against their will and with the use of force, if necessary. He was quite the zealot about it; hopefully, in the event of a smallpox exposure, more reasonable minds will prevail.
Myth #5: The vaccine will keep me from getting the infection
This little known fact is not only true for all vaccines, it is also true for the smallpox vaccine. Here are a few examples:
Chickenpox vaccine: "No data exists regarding post-exposure efficacy of the current varicella vaccine." "Vaccinated persons have a less severe out break than unvaccinated" (300vs. 50 lesions.)[xi]
Pertussis vaccine: "The findings of efficacy studies have not demonstrated a direct correlation between antibody response and protection against pertussis disease."[xii]
Smallpox vaccine: "Neutralizing antibodies are reported to reflect levels of protection, although this has not been validated in the field."[xiii]
Dr. Harold Margolis, Senior Advisor to the Director for Smallpox Planning and Response, stated in Atlanta that "the vaccine decreased the death rate among those vaccinated by 'modifying the disease', not by preventing infection."
TAKE HOME POINTS:
In addition to medical first responders, a presentation at the June 20th meeting suggested that first responders should also include a class to be defined as "economic first responders," those who would be necessary in keeping the economy moving in the event of a nationwide "lockdown" caused by an outbreak. This group would include pilots, truck drivers, food handlers, etc. It is the "etc." that is of concern. Where do you draw the line? Obviously, the line will be drawn after Tommy Thompson's vision of a "vaccine for every man, woman and child" has been fulfilled. [Note from Hank: Does anyone reading this have any info linking Heir Thompson with Avantis/Baxter International? This is the company that received the near $1/2 billion contract for domestic bioterrorism.]
One of the major problems is the lack of vaccinia immune globulin(VIG), the "antidote" that is needed for those who experience a severe reaction to the vaccine. The Times article reports that there are only 700 doses currently available. Dr. Tom Mack, among others at the CDC warned that, "in the absence of VIG, extensive vaccination would be extremely dangerous."
With the continued rhetoric regarding the US plans to go to war with Iraq, we are essentially taunting Saddam into launching a biological attack on our own people. We are not given an exact knowledge as to Saddam's capability but are given euphemisms such as "reasonably high" or "quite high." But we don't know for sure. And if the government knows, it is not telling. And if Saddam does have biological smallpox, what is the chance he has other weapons of biological destruction, those for which we do not have a vaccine?
We are developing "grounds" for a war with Iraq in spite of the rest of the world telling us to stay out of there. I encourage all to spend some time on this site:www.globalpolicy.org for some eye-opening information on policy that you won't see in the popular press.
We are setting the stage for a health disaster unlike anything we have seen before in America, and it will be our own doing. World health records (England, Germany, Italy, the Philippines, British India, etc.) document that devastating epidemics followed mass vaccination. The worst smallpox disaster occurred in the Philippines after a 10 year compulsory US program administered 25 million vaccinations to its population of 10 million resulting in 170,000 cases and more than 75,000 deaths from 'smallpox', in a country having only scattered cases in rural villages prior to the onslaught of vaccines.[xv]
I received an excellent bulletin from Larken Rose (www.Theft-By-Deception.com) who is an activist regarding taxes. So much of what he said applies to the vaccine movement, that I got his permission to include part of his letter here. It is time to STAND AGAINST forced vaccination. Stop the hysteria! Information is power. However, after gaining power, you must ACT.
Here is something to inspire you:
Though it may be politically incorrect to describe it this way, the Declaration of Independence was a bunch of people openly stating that they were going to IGNORE the law (not debate it or litigate it), and OVERTHROW their present government. (King George was not a foreign invader; he was "the government".) Again, in the words of the Declaration, "when a long train of abuses and usurpations, pursuing invariably the same object, evidences a design to reduce them under absolute despotism, it is the people's right, it is their duty, to throw off such government."
Where are the Americans who still have that attitude?
"Power concedes nothing without a demand. It never did, and it never will. Find out just what people will submit to, and you have found out the exact amount of injustice and wrong which will be imposed upon them, and these will continue till they have resisted with either words or blows, or with both. The limits of tyrants are prescribed by the endurance of those whom they suppress" -- Frederick Douglas
This is a very different country today from what it was 226 years ago. We have become a country of sheep. We occasionally "baaa" at government injustice, but we do not ACT. For the most part, our "rebelliousness" now consists of pushing buttons in voting booths, to hopefully elect the less scummy of two lying scumbags (after a debate about which one is scummier).
For most people that is the extent of their resistance to government-imposed injustice. Each of us cowers in a corner for fear that we will be the next one that government makes an "example" of. While self-preservation is no sin, at some point a country of "self-preservers" will "preserve" itself into total submission to tyrants.
We are one step away from that now.
We do not need to lie in the mud, squinting in the cold to see the rifle sites, waiting for the glimpse of British Troops that we know are headed our way just over the next ridge. We do not need to run into the open field, in heavy enemy fire, to retrieve our buddy who just had his leg blown off by a cannonball. We do not need to leave our families and friends to fight, and possibly to die. No, today the price for our freedom (at least a huge chunk of it) is a pittance compared to what others have paid, but I have my doubts about whether we are willing to pay even that.
What is that price? What do we need to do?
[xv] Physician William Howard Hay's address of June 25, 1937; printed in the Congressional Record.
Sandy from Alaska
(05) SMALLPOX OP IS OUT IN THE OPEN -- by John Rappaport
"We live in a society that values choice," stated Julie Gerberding, CDC director. "If we have vaccine and we have data to accurately assess the safety, one school of thought is that informed people may want to have the choice of getting vaccine or not."
Talks just like a lawyer facing the possibility of billion-dollar liability suits for vaccine damage. Read her waffling remark again. Lots of conditionals in it. The translation is, "The FDA has not yet approved this vaccine. The CDC, at any rate, does not want to take responsibility for what happens to people who get the shot."
Also note a lurking military angle: The Department of Defense has placed an order for 1 million doses of the vaccine, to be delivered within the next month. Oops. THAT part of the program will obviously not be voluntary. The Pentagon is not in the habit of asking soldiers if they want ANYTHING.
In the MSNBC coverage of the new wrinkles of this vaccine plan, we get a truly boggling comment from a US health official. If you recall, months ago, the feds were suggesting that a very small number of people--whose immune systems were already suppressed--could die or become severely maimed by the shots. Well now, lookie here. Dr. Anthony Fauci, director of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, tells MSNBC that between 30 and 50 MILLION Americans should not get the vaccine because their immune systems are not up to it.
In other words, working from a population estimate of 300 million people in the US, ONE IN TEN PEOPLE COULD HAVE VERY SERIOUS PROBLEMS FROM THE SHOT. PROBLEMS INCLUDING DEATH.
MSNBC, in its usual mindless fashion, follows Fauci's remark with this absurd insert, the same insert that has been parroted since the beginning of the whole vaccine campaign: "For every 1 million vaccinated, 15 people are likely to suffer life-threatening complications and one or two would die."
HEY. The man just got through telling you that 1 OUT OF TEN AMERICANS
COULD BE RIPPED BY THE VACCINE. WAKE UP. SMELL THE POISON.
If my arithmetic is correct, 1 out of 40 Americans is a medical worker. Wow. Does this tell you something about which way this country is going?
Staggering. STAGGERING. And I'm sure they aren't counting med insurance employees and routine office employees of pharmaceutical companies and office employees of state and federal health agencies and people who work for medical supply firms. Adding in THOSE figures, how many people in the US make their living from the medical cartel?
THE US IS BECOMING ONE GIANT HOSPITAL.
Have we seen any credible evidence that somebody somewhere is readying a smallpox attack?
THE ANSWER TO THAT IS NO.
WASHINGTON, Nov. 27 (UPI) -- As the White House readies a national smallpox vaccine plan, representatives of nurses and firefighters -- who would be among the first to receive the smallpox vaccinations -- this week said they would strongly object to mandatory inoculations.
Smallpox inoculation carries a deadly risk. When administered in the United States in the late 1960s, between 14 and 52 people per million experienced potentially life-threatening reactions, while one or two in a million died, according to the Atlanta-based Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
Smallpox hasn't occurred naturally since 1977, but experts fear it could return through a biological terror attack.
"In a pre-incident environment, to mandate that every firefighter in this country take a shot that might kill them is of great concern to us, to say the least," said Craig Sharman, the director of government relations for National Volunteer Fire Council, the nation's largest volunteer firefighter association.
"It would have to be a voluntary situation."
Cheryl Peterson, a senior policy analyst at the American Nurses Association, which represents the nation's 2.6 million nurses, said that her association was concerned that there could be reprisals against nurses who refused the vaccination.
"We have some concerns that nurses understand the full risk they are taking when they are vaccinated," she said. She also said that nurses should not feel they have to take the shot in order to keep their jobs.
The concerns were expressed amid growing media reports that the White House will soon release a vaccination plan that would require an initial wave of up to 500,000 U.S. military personnel and 500,000 health workers to be immunized against the disease.
Millions of firefighters, police officers, and other emergency workers -- so-called "first responders" -- could be inoculated in a second series of vaccinations.
The White House has been preparing a plan for months but hasn't yet officially indicated who would be immunized and under what circumstances.
Preparing for potential smallpox attack has been a top priority of infectious disease specialists in the United States since the Sept. 11, 2001 terror attacks.
Numerous working groups have already made recommendations, according to Judy English, the chairwoman of bioterrorism readiness at the Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology.
In advance of a finalized national plan, the CDC has posted instructions and forms on its Web site to be used by health care workers in the event of an attack. States are due to present their own response plans in the case of an outbreak by Sunday.
"We support careful vaccination because the health care providers in this country must feel safe to do their job," English said.
Smallpox is a highly deadly disease that kills up to 30 percent of those it infects and leaves more blind or disfigured. It last occurred naturally in Somalia in 1977. [Note from Hank: Notice that Ms. Otterman of UPI is parroting the lies about smallpox that earlier articles/writers warned us about.]
But the vaccination -- which requires people to be infected with a weaker pox called vaccinia -- carries its own risks.
"It is the most dangerous vaccine that we have. It will cause some healthy people to have adverse reactions that they would not have otherwise had," English said.
People at greater risk of serious side effects include those who have had eczema, even if it is not currently active; those with a weakened immune system -- such as people with cancer or HIV -- and pregnant women.
The vaccine is also not recommended by the CDC for those with skin conditions such as burns, chickenpox, shingles, impetigo, herpes, severe acne or psoriasis -- nor those under 18 years of age.
Because the vaccination consists of a live virus, it can infect others in a household if the inoculation site is not treated meticulously. For this reason, those with young children or elderly people in their homes might not want to be immunized, English said.
English, who has been consultating with other medical professionals on a finalized plan for months, said: "Everything I know about the vaccination plan demonstrations that it will be a voluntary vaccination."
However, she and other health care professionals stressed the need for more education and clear procedures to be established before any plan moves forward.
"Any inoculation plan of this scale will be extremely complex," said Peterson, adding that nurses had many questions.
"Will nurses be permitted to work while their inoculation is shedding? Are there sufficient provisions for patient safety? What provisions will be made for those nurses who have an adverse reaction?" she asked.http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2002/12/03/eveningnews/printable531587.shtml
Under a plan that's broader than some wanted, a million Americans would get inoculated against smallpox in the first wave. As CBS News Correspondent Sharyl Attkisson reports, the phased-in approach is being considered by President Bush.
First in line would be a half million military personnel, and a half million civilian medical workers. Next, as many as 10 million emergency health care and rescue workers who'd be first to respond to a bioterror attack. After that, the vaccine would be available to anyone who wants it, accompanied by stern warnings about the risks.
"Why is this such an agonizing decision? It's an extremely difficult decision for the President to make because it involves weighing the risk of a possible terrorist use of smallpox, which is almost impossible to quantify, against the known risks of the vaccine, which are substantial," says Jonathan Tucker, a smallpox expert
Smallpox is highly contagious, hard to contain and kills a third of its victims. Moreover, the vaccine itself is riskier than any other on the market.
Out of every million people who get the shot, two to three people will die. Nationwide, that could translate to hundreds of deaths and thousands of life threatening illnesses caused by the vaccine.
All 50 states plus the three largest cities - New York, Los Angeles and Chicago - are scrambling to meet a Monday deadline to submit plans for giving inoculations.
One frontline health care worker says the phased-in approach makes sense.
"The initial people are going to be test subjects or guinea pigs," says Dr. Martin Blaser, Chairman of the Department of Medicine at NYU Medical Center and an infectious disease specialist.
"If we vaccinate a half million people we'll learn something about the logistics, the medical complications, we'll learn something about the spread of the vaccine from vaccinated people to unvaccinated we'll learn something about the complications," Blaser tells Attkisson.
Even if you were vaccinated as a child, the protection has likely worn off. So hundreds of millions of people will have to weigh the risks and benefit of getting the shot. What's been a difficult decision for the President will likely be difficult for the public too.http://disc.server.com/discussion.cgi?id=149495;article=33444
WASHINGTON, Sept. 23 -- Federal health officials today instructed states to prepare to vaccinate every American in the event of a biological attack using smallpox, and issued a detailed plan showing how each state could quickly inoculate as many as one million people in the first 10 days.
In releasing their most comprehensive smallpox preparedness plan to date, officials at the federal Centers for Disease Control and Prevention said publicly for the first time that even one case of smallpox might result in a nationwide program of voluntary vaccinations. That is in part because even a single case could be a harbinger of a larger outbreak and in part because even one case would undoubtedly spark panic and a clamor for vaccine.
"We want to step up preparedness," Julie Gerberding, the director of the disease control agency, said in an interview. "If there is actually exposure and risk, we want to be able to vaccinate quickly. If there is anxiety, we also want to do it quickly."
But the new guidance for states is far from encyclopedic, and experts complained that the center's 48-page document failed to answer questions about the timing, cost and logistical hurdles of preparing thousands of health professionals and volunteers to conduct mass vaccinations while keeping the public calm. Critics said a superficial plan could sap public confidence, worsening the effects of a smallpox crisis.
"It's putting a lot of responsibility in a short time on local clinics, which will be untested," said Caroline B. Hall, a professor of infectious diseases at the University of Rochester's School of Medicine. "The quilt is only as good as the stitches. One tiny thread breaks, and the whole thing unravels."
Smallpox, which was eradicated worldwide two decades ago, is highly contagious and kills roughly a third of its victims, making it a potentially fearsome biological weapon. Officially, the virus is supposed to exist only in repositories in Moscow and the disease control center's headquarters in Atlanta, but experts have long suspected that some nations harbor secret stocks of smallpox to use as a biological weapon.
Today's release of the "Smallpox Vaccination Clinic Guide" comes as the United States is mobilizing for a possible attack on one of those nations, Iraq. Dr. Gerberding described this as "an unfortunate coincidence of timing," and said the guide was simply an update of a preparedness plan first issued two years ago, before the attacks on New York and the Pentagon and the subsequent anthrax attacks.
Bioterrorism experts said the administration's timing could not be ignored.
"They know the best time for Saddam to hit us, if he has the smallpox weapon, would be before we go in so he can terrify the American people," said an adviser to the Bush administration on smallpox policy. "In that case, it is definitely good to have these guidelines out there."
The plan does not specify what kind of attack would spur a mass vaccination campaign, or who would make the decision to initiate one. Agency officials said that absent a declaration of a national emergency by the president they would make the decision in consultation with state health officials.
The vaccine is one of the few that can work even if a person is already infected, and experts say it can protect people if given within four days of exposure to the virus.
The guide says up to 75 million doses of the nation's vaccine stockpile could be shipped in a single day and 280 million doses, enough to cover every American, in five to seven days.
The guidelines call for states to run 20 clinics 16 hours a day, an effort that the government estimates would require 4,680 public health workers and volunteers. Depending on the size and severity of the outbreak and where it is, the guidelines said more or fewer participating clinics could be needed. In state capitols around the country, health commissioners said they welcomed the advice but fretted about whether they would be able to carry it out.
In Maryland, Dr. Georges Benjamin, secretary of the Department of Health and Mental Hygiene, said he had already told his staff to integrate the document into the existing bioterrorism preparedness plan.
"What is astounding is the number of people it would take to actually make this thing happen," Dr. Benjamin said. Asked if he could conduct a mass vaccination right away, he said, "We would do what we had to do, but it would be tough. I would hate to try to do this tomorrow."
There is no set timetable by which states must comply, Dr. Gerberding said, adding that the disease control agency hoped that states would conduct preparedness exercises as they develop their own plans.
Replete with flowcharts and checklists, the center's guide covers things like many security officers would be needed for each clinic to contain an unruly crowd (two per clinic per day) and how many minutes it would take people to fill out the medical history screening forms (two to three).
It deals with how clinics should handle people who refuse to be vaccinated and reminds states that they must plan for huge numbers of fatalities. "Plan for vaccinating mortuary personnel and their families," the guide says.
But the plan does not address the vexing, and politically delicate, issue of whether to vaccinate public health workers and emergency personnel before a terrorist attack.
The White House is weighing whether to permit such vaccinations. Tommy G. Thompson, the secretary of health and human services, has said a decision is expected by the end of this month.
Many public health experts say the precautionary vaccinations are necessary. "These people need to be protected," said Dr. Mohammed Akhter, the executive director of the American Public Health Association. "If we do not do that, and we just go to this plan, then these workers will be standing in line to get their vaccination rather than helping us" vaccinate others.
But the issue is complicated because the vaccine, made from a live virus, carries risks to patients with skin disorders and immune system deficiencies, including people with AIDS. And those who are vulnerable are endangered not only by being inoculated, but also by contact with others who have been inoculated.
"It's very hard to say without a clear threat who should and who shouldn't be vaccinated," said Tara O'Toole, director of the Johns Hopkins Center for Civilian Biodefense Strategies. "Some analyses suggest that if you have ever had eczema or live with someone who has, you shouldn't get vaccinated, and by some estimates that eliminates 30 million Americans."
Dr. O'Toole said she thought the plan "makes great good sense," because it assumes that the nation must be ready to vaccinate a large number of people on short notice.
The center's previous smallpox preparedness plan revolved around a strategy in which public health workers would track down and vaccinate infected people and those who came into contact with them, working in concentric circles until the outbreak was contained.
The new document does not supplant the "ring vaccination" plan, Dr. Gerberding said. But Dr. Bill Bicknell, a professor of international health at Boston University critical of that strategy, said the guide was undoubtedly influenced by recent studies showing that ring vaccination would not contain a large outbreak. He said studies had found that if 1,000 people were infected in a large city like New York and ring vaccination were used, within three months there would be 300,000 cases of smallpox and 100,000 deaths and the epidemic would not be contained. But mass vaccination, he said, would contain such an epidemic in 40 to 45 days, with 1,500 cases and 500 deaths.
"If they do it correctly, with the proper planning, you can vaccinate millions and millions of people in a very short time," Dr. Bicknell said.
And he noted that until recently, a mass vaccination policy would have been implausible, because the nation did not have a big enough vaccine stockpile to carry it out.
Federal officials began building a smallpox vaccine stockpile after last year's anthrax attacks. Mr. Thompson, the health secretary, signed contracts with two companies to buy 209 million doses to add to the existing stockpile of vaccine, some of which dates to the 1950's. In the interim, studies have shown that the existing stockpile could be diluted.
Government officials have offered differing assessments of whether there is now enough vaccine for every American. In a recent interview, Dr. Anthony S. Fauci, director of the National Institute for Allergy and Infectious Diseases, said there was, adding, "If we had an emergency tomorrow, we'd be good to go."
During a briefing today to discuss the state guidance, Dr. Joseph Henderson, the center's associate director for terrorism preparedness, said, "On an emergency basis, if we saw smallpox tomorrow and felt the need to do mass vaccination, we could vaccinate 155 million individuals."http://www.rense.com
WASHINGTON (Reuters Health) - Attorneys for the Bush Administration asked a federal court on Monday to order that documents on hundreds of cases of autism allegedly caused by childhood vaccines be kept from the public.
Department of Justice lawyers asked a special master in the US Court of Federal Claims to seal the documents, arguing that allowing their automatic disclosure would take away the right of federal agencies to decide when and how the material should be released.
Attorneys for the families of hundreds of autistic children charged that the government was trying to keep the information out of civil courts, where juries might be convinced to award large judgments against vaccine manufacturers.
The court is currently hearing approximately 1,000 claims brought by the families of autistic children. The suits charge that the measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine, which until recently included a mercury-containing preservative known as thimerosal, can cause neurological damage leading to autism.
Federal law requires suits against vaccine makers to go before a special federal "vaccine court" before any civil lawsuit is allowed. The court was set up by Congress to speed compensation claims and to help protect vaccine makers from having to pay large punitive awards decided by juries in state civil courts. Plaintiffs are free to take their cases to state courts if they lose in the federal vaccine court or if they don't accept the court's judgment.
The current 1,000 or so autism cases are unusual for the court. Because it received so many claims, much of the fact-finding and evidence-gathering is going on for all of the cases as a block.
Monday's request by the Bush Administration would prevent plaintiffs who later go to civil court from using some relevant evidence generated during the required vaccine court proceedings.
Plaintiffs' attorneys said that the order amounted to punishment of the families of injured children because it would require them to incur the time and expense of regenerating evidence for a civil suit.
"Wouldn't it be a shame if at the end of the day our policy would be to compensate lawyers," said Jeff Kim, an attorney with Gallagher Boland Meiburger & Brosnan. The firm represents about 400 families of autistic children who received the MMR vaccine.
Kim accused the government of trying to lower "a shroud of secrecy over these documents" in order to protect vaccine manufacturers, who he said were "the only entities" that would benefit if the documents are sealed.
While federal law clearly seals most documents generated in individual vaccine cases, it has never been applied to a block proceeding like the one generating evidence in the autism cases.
Administration lawyers told Special Master George Hastings that they requested the seal in order to preserve the legal right of the Secretary of Health and Human Services to decide when vaccine evidence can be released to the public.
Justice Department attorney Vincent Matanoski argued that to let plaintiffs use the vaccine court evidence in a later civil suit would confer an advantage on plaintiffs who chose to forgo federal compensation.
"There is no secret here. What the petitioners are arguing for are enhanced rights in a subsequent civil action," Matanoski said of the plaintiffs. "They're still going to have unfettered use within the proceedings."
Hastings would not say when he would issue a ruling on whether to seal the court documents, but did say that his decision would be "very prompt."
Copyright © 2002 Reuters Limited. All rights reserved. Republication or redistribution of Reuters content is expressly prohibited without the prior written consent of Reuters. Reuters shall not be liable for any errors or delays in the content, or for any actions taken in reliance thereon.http://www.timesonline.co.uk/article/0,,7-492718,00.html]
Hundreds of American soldiers have suffered serious illness after being compulsorily injected with a controversial Anthrax vaccine, a batch of which has been found to be contaminated
ON THE MORNING of December 17, 1998, Ronda Wilson, a supremely fit, strikingly beautiful American helicopter gunship pilot, was heading for military stardom. Just 21 and the only woman in her squadron, she had recently defeated her 63 male fellow pilots to earn the coveted Top Gun award in her first gunnery flight test. She was without peer in her cavalry unit, so skilled at handling the OH-58 Delta Warrior, armed with Hellfire missiles and .50-calibre machine guns, that she was described by her commanding officer as "one of the most outstanding pilots of her generation".
On that morning, at Fort Stewart, Georgia, she received a routine order that was ultimately to destroy her faith in the military family and American government which she loved beyond question, and which she says "I was willing to die for". She was told to "go get your jabs".
She was never told what the injection was for, and felt no need to ask. It was, she later discovered, the first in a six-dose course of anthrax vaccination. It was the moment she became part of the US government's compulsory, highly ambitious anthrax vaccination programme for all 2.4 million of its military personnel; the project was authorised by President Clinton himself, it had begun eight months before, and it was halted 18 months later amid damning congressional verdicts, lawsuits and accusations of a top-level cover-up.
There were many things Wilson was not told about the 0.5ml phial of milky liquid that was being injected into her arm. It was manufactured by a company that today, after a new lease of life for the vaccination programme, has begun to distribute millions of doses to immunise "high-risk" US troops heading to the Persian Gulf for an attack on Iraq. (British soldiers will not be immunised with this vaccine, but with a home-grown version, produced at Porton Down).
Critics of the vaccine, who include congressmen, senior military officers and more than 450 American servicemen who have been court-martialled or forced to leave the military for refusing to take it, say its ability to combat inhalation anthrax has never been proven and it has never been tested on humans; it has never been licensed to combat inhalation anthrax; and its long term effects have never been known. Those claims are supported by a congressional committee which issued a scathing and alarming report into the efficacy and supervision of the vaccine, and the immunisation programme, in April 2000.
Its critics also claim it is being forced on the country's soldiers as part of a politically-inspired attempt to persuade the American public that an effective vaccine against an anthrax terror attack exists, and that its soldiers are safe from Saddam Hussein's chemical and biological arsenal.
The Pentagon, and BioPort, the manufacturer, together with the Food and Drug Administration, which licenses US drugs, fiercely deny these claims. The Times has looked at thousands of pages of government, FDA, Army, congressional and medical reports stretching back 30 years. The extraordinary story of this anthrax vaccine, suddenly thrust on to centre stage in a new age of global terror, is one of high-level politics, furious scientific dispute, big business and great controversy.
One thing is certain -- this vaccine has a history. Questions persist on two levels: the ability of the company that manufactures it to produce it safely, and the safety and effectiveness of the vaccine itself. There is testimony and documentation that raise the question of why the American military establishment and successive White House administrations have persisted with a company and a vaccine that by their own admission have suffered problems. It is a history that the hundreds of thousands of US troops about to receive the compulsory immunisation, and who have no right to refuse it, are not being told about.
Of all the things Wilson was not told about her first jab, perhaps the most crucial was this: that 10 months earlier, in February 1998, after an inspection of the Michigan laboratory that manufactures the vaccine, the plant had its authority to make the vaccine suspended by the FDA.
The inspection followed five years of warning letters citing concerns over the plant's record-keeping and violations in safety, potency consistency and sterility. The February 1998 FDA report, which effectively prevented the plant from manufacturing fresh supplies of the vaccine for three years, and a copy of which has been obtained by The Times, is damning.
The 95-page report found lots of the vaccine contaminated, a filtration process not authorised by the FDA, problems with cleanliness and the sterility of equipment and a failure to ensure a uniform potency of the drug.
"The firm routinely redates Anthrax Vaccine lots that have reached their labelled expiration date," the report says. And it states: "Lot FAV036 was at room temperature for 20 hours, the filling operation was aborted, it was placed back in the refrigerator." According to military records it was a dose from Lot FAV036 that was given to Wilson that December morning, eight months after the FDA report had been sent to BioPort.
"The patient reported no significant reactions with the first shot," her final military medical report states -- written in April 2001 when a depressed, emaciated and mentally confused Wilson was discharged from her unit -- "except for an immediate large painful local reaction at the injection site (described as being slightly smaller than a golf ball). The pain extended from her shoulder to her elbow. The military medical community reassured her this was normal. She also reported the onset of about three headaches a week."
After her second jab, from a different lot, in January 1999, she developed "irritability, loss of memory, fatigue. By late February to early March nausea and diarrhoea started. One week after her third anthrax vaccine dose her gastro-intestinal symptoms worsened further, evolving into her current disabling state of illness."
That current state is pitiful. Wilson, who four years ago was in superb health and in charge of one of the most potent weapons in the US armoury, can barely drive a car. She has lost a third of her body weight and suffers such agonising cramps every day that she is forced to curl up in a foetal position for hours at a time. She has stiff joints, chronic fatigue, anaemia, difficulty with simple sums, memory loss, blackouts, permanent abdominal pain and, according to her medical report, "loss of cognitive function".
She is sure the anthrax jabs caused her physical and mental degeneration, but understands the difficulty in proving it. The final medical report concluded: "There were no other risk factors present ... that could account for her symptoms. The anthrax vaccination may have adversely affected her immunological balance. There is a clear temporal association with the onset of her illness and her anthrax vaccination. While it is not possible to scientifically prove causality between anthrax vaccination and the onset of her illness, it is impossible to disprove causality."
Wilson understands those problems of proof. What has destroyed her trust in everything she once held dear -- the US military, the US government and her husband, a fellow pilot who has now left her -- is that for 18 months she was led to believe she was a freak, the only soldier to have become ill after the injections, a strange one-off. Military doctors would diagnose stress, Aids, leukaemia, anything except a possible link to the vaccination. And, she says, as soon as she became ill, "they couldn't wait to get rid of me".
But in the summer of 2000, at the Walter Reed Army Medical Centre in Washington DC, she met another soldier reduced to a sad husk by, he claimed, an anthrax jab. He began to tell her what he had learnt about the vaccine, and about the hundreds of soldiers who claim it has made them chronically ill with fatigue, auto-immune diseases, severe joint pain and infertility.
It was a story that left Wilson feeling "betrayed by everything I once believed in". Sitting in her rented flat in Savannah, Georgia, and often close to tears, she asks: "How could they not tell me the history of this drug, to make me believe I was an aberration?"
Jon Irelan, a retired Army major and US Ranger, was on a tour of duty in Saudi Arabia in 1999 when he was given four anthrax jabs. Soon he was losing his hair and suffering fevers and muscular weakness, mood swings and bed-sweats. Ultimately he discovered that his testicles had shrivelled up and died. He will be on testosterone injections for the rest of his life. "Right from the beginning they refused to send me to an American medical facility," he says. ."They kept sending me to Saudi doctors. They told me it was a freak reaction. There were guys being airlifted to the Army Hospital in Germany for ingrowing toenails. I thought I was an anomaly."
In June 2000 Irelan, back in the US, contacted his congressman, Washington State's Jack Metcalfe, who sat on the House Government Reform Committee which was investigating the vaccine. "His office told me I was not alone. Then I started receiving calls from others, telling me I was not crazy. The calls have not stopped.
"I would have been happy to accept this if I had been told the problems with the vaccine. Shit happens. But they treated me like a dog."
In October 2000, Irelan gave evidence before the House committee. "Members of Congress," he said, "I appear before you today to tell you that I would willingly lay down my life for the United States of America. But what I wish someone would explain is why it has been permitted to perpetrate this unproven drug on my fellow soldiers." It was a question worth asking, because a long paper trail shows how concerned the US Government has been about the vaccine for more than 15 years.
The first anthrax vaccine was designed in the 1950s to protect wool-mill workers from cutaneous anthrax, which enters the body through breaks in the skin. In 1970 the federal government issued the only licence to manufacture a similar vaccine to the Michigan Department of Public Health. That later became the state-owned Michigan Biologic Products Institute (MBPI). That licence was based on a scientific study of an earlier vaccine which had suggested an effectiveness against inhalation anthrax. "There was a presumption of effectiveness, but it has never been tested, which is a legal requirement," says a congressional aide on the House Government Reform Committee, which had called for the immunisation programme to be suspended in April 2000.
By the late 1980s MBPI, with antiquated facilities, was making small batches of the vaccine, about 15,000 to 17,000 doses every four years, selling them mostly to people in the animal hides business. It was the only US company making an anthrax vaccine. With the reduction in the relevance of nuclear weapons, the Cold War now over, the US Army had begun to take an interest in chemical and biological warfare. It investigated the possibility of contracting MBPI to supply the US military with the vaccine. This was before vaccinations became politically sensitive, and the Army and Pentagon statements are now a matter of public record. They are striking in their bluntness.
In 1985 a US Army report stated: "There is no vaccine in current use which will safely and effectively protect against all strains of the anthrax bacillus. A licensed vaccine against anthrax ... is currently available for human use. The vaccine is, however, highly reactogenic, requires multiple boosters to maintain immunity and may not be protective against all strains of anthrax bacillus."
In 1989, a year after the Army had gone ahead with ordering 300,000 doses from MBPI, a letter from the Pentagon to Senator John Glenn stated: "Current vaccines, particularly the anthrax vaccine, do not readily lend themselves to use in mass troop immunisation for a variety of reasons, a higher than desirable rate of reactogenicity, and, in some cases, lack of strong enough efficacy against infection by the aerosol route of exposure."
Then came the Gulf War. Amid claims that the vaccine may have caused the illness of thousands of troops after 150,000 were vaccinated -- allegations never proved -- hearings were held by the Senate Veterans Affairs Committee. In December 1994 it stated: "The efficacy of the vaccine against biological warfare is unknown."
In the 1994 medical textbook Vaccines, Colonel Arthur Friedlander, the US Army's chief anthrax vaccine researcher, wrote: "The current vaccine against anthrax is unsatisfactory for several reasons. The vaccine is composed of an undefined crude culture ... the degree of purity is unknown ... the presence of constituents that may be undesirable may account for the level of reactogenicity observed."
This is the same vaccine -- the same ingredients, if not the same batch -- being administered to troops today.
In October 2000, Col Friedlander gave evidence to the House committee. He said: "This vaccine is safe and effective, and it's the best vaccine we have to protect against this disease."
Col Friedlander says he has taken the vaccine himself. There is no reason to believe his assertion before the committee was not genuinely held. One thing, however, had changed: the determination of the US government to immunise the entire military.
Throughout the 1990s, MBPI had been manufacturing millions of doses in the conditions so damned by the February 1998 FDA inspection, as political demands for the vaccine grew. In 1996 the Khobar Towers bombing in Saudi Arabia killed 19 US troops. Pan-Arab terrorism had begun in earnest. The spectre of biological terrorism was becoming a genuine political concern. So the Army again looked at the anthrax vaccine. This time the plan was bold: a mass immunisation programme for all 2.4 million servicemen and women.
In 1995 the Army contracted the SAIC Corporation, consultants to the Pentagon, to submit a plan that would enable them to obtain an FDA licence for inhalation anthrax. In its report, the SAIC's plan clearly identified the vaccine's legal status: "This vaccine is not licensed for aerosol exposure expected in a biological warfare environment." Under US law, the lack of such a licence meant that soldiers could not be given the vaccine without their "informed consent", a hurdle that would have made a mass immunisation programme impossible.
On September 20, 1996, MBPI submitted an Investigational New Drug (IND) application to the FDA. Again, one of its purposes was clear: "To obtain a specific indication for inhalation anthrax." That IND application has never been acted upon by the FDA.
Six months later the FDA's stance on the vaccine appeared to change. In 1997 a new Defence Secretary, William Cohen, made combating bio-terrorism a priority. On March 4, 1997, four days after the retirement of the long-serving FDA Commissioner David Kessler, the Assistant US Defence Secretary (Health Affairs), Dr Stephen Joseph, wrote to the acting FDA Commissioner, Dr Michael Friedman. Dr Joseph said the Defence Department had "long interpreted" the vaccine as being effective for inhalation anthrax. This was six months after the IND application.
Dr Friedman replied on March 13. It was a response that seemed to clear the regulatory hurdle for a mass immunisation programme: "While there is a paucity of data regarding the effectiveness of Anthrax Vaccine for prevention of inhalation anthrax, the current package insert does not preclude the use." The insert said the vaccine was licensed for "at risk" industrial and veterinary workers. It did not specify the type of infection.
Meanwhile, MBPI was in financial trouble. In June 1998 a private consortium named BioPort, headed by a Lebanese businessman, Fuad El-Hibri, bought the company for $24 million. A major shareholder and director of BioPort was Admiral William Crowe, Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff under the Reagan and Bush Senior administrations, and a friend of El-Hibri; the two met while Crowe was Ambassador to the UK.
Less than a month after the sale of MBPI, BioPort landed an exclusive $29 million contract with the Pentagon to "manufacture, test, bottle and store the anthrax vaccine." Admiral Crowe has vehemently denied that he knew of the deal before BioPort purchased MBPI. He also insists that the vaccine is safe.
Within months, BioPort too was in trouble. Unable to rectify in time the problems highlighted in the FDA's February 1998 inspection report, the new owner, like MBPI before it, was unable to ship any new vaccine. It appealed to the Pentagon for more money. By June 2000 the Anthrax Vaccine Immunisation Programme (AVIP) had all but ended, due in large part to dwindling supplies. Not until January this year was BioPort authorised to start shipping new vaccines. But between March 1998 and January 2000, according to the Pentagon's own figures, 2.1 million doses of stockpiled, pre-February 1998 vaccines were administered to 535,000 troops. Only in August did the FDA prohibit BioPort from using any pre-1998 vaccine. During that period the Pentagon spent over $100 million of taxpayers' money renovating the plant. It is also paying about $20 a dose, more than three times the original price negotiated three years ago. And critics point out that no matter how much money ha! ! ! s been spent renovating the plant and cleaning up the manufacturing process, the vaccine itself, given to troops heading to the Gulf today, has not changed.
Six months after the FDA inspection of the plant, Captain Tom Rempfer and Major Russ Dingle, officers in the Connecticut Air National Guard, were asked by their commanding officer to look into the vaccine. Misgivings about the jabs had begun to spread, and it was felt that their investigation would put the minds of fellow pilots at rest.
It didn't. The two officers wanted to go public when they discovered the FDA inspection report. Senior officers in their unit, they say, ordered them to keep their discovery secret. They then refused to take the jab, and were ordered to resign their commissions. Both pilots have filed federal lawsuits against BioPort challenging the effectiveness of the vaccine. The sister of Sandra Larson, a soldier who died three months after her sixth jab, has also been joined by Ronda Wilson in suing BioPort. Their lawyer, Alan Milstein, says he hopes to bring a class action involving hundreds of former servicemen. Their cases, they say, have been greatly helped by the House of Representatives.
In April 2000, after days of testimony, the House Government Reform Committee released its verdict on the vaccine. It stated: "The AVIP programme ... leaves the Department of Defence captive to old technology and a single, untested company ... based on a dangerously narrow scientific and medical foundation. The safety of the vaccine is not being monitored adequately." As a health care effort, "the AVIP compromises the practice of medicine to achieve military objectives."
It derided the "preposterously low" adverse reaction rates reported by the Pentagon, which is "more concerned with public relations than effective force protection". It adds: "Adverse events following vaccination are reported by women at twice the rate among men." And it concludes: "AVIP raises an ominous question: who protects the force from ill-conceived force protection?" The House committee, chaired by Dan Burton and Christopher Shays, both Republican congressman, recommended that the AVIP programme be suspended. Lawrence Halloran, a senior aide to Shays, says: "The FDA was leant on by the Department of Defence in 1997, and took a shortcut. They interpreted the old licence on the fly, giving the vaccine approval. It is not a standard you would find anywhere else. No other drug manufacturer would be given approval for a product like this.
"The committee concluded that it is not licensed for inhalation anthrax. There is no question it is harmful to some people's health. To persist with using this vaccine at the expense of developing a new one is a scandal."
So how can the Pentagon be allowed to vaccinate troops with such a discredited product? "Because they can," Halloran says. "They felt a desperate need to have something at hand, and this was already on the shelf. After the Gulf War they panicked, and felt they had to do something. They have the weight to intimidate the FDA into ignoring the problems."
In August the FDA acknowledged problems with the vaccine. The product insert was altered dramatically. It said the vaccine could harm people with immunity disorders, could cause a host of serious long-term adverse reactions and could already be responsible for six deaths and a number of birth defects. According to the Pentagon, of the 535,000 troops inoculated, 1,578 have reported adverse reactions with 208 classified as "serious". The insert warnings were based in part on a report by the US General Accounting Office earlier this year, which stated that adverse reactions occur in five to 35 per cent of people who take the injection, vastly higher than a previous Pentagon claim of only 0.2 per cent.
The GAO also criticised the pressure exerted on troops not to report adverse effects, so as not to jeopardise their military careers. James Turner, a Pentagon spokesman, says: "The vaccine is safe and effective. Period." He points to the FDA's own evaluation of the vaccine. Kim Brennan Root, of BioPort, refers to the product insert, which states: "BioThrax is also indicated for individuals at high risk of exposure to bacillus anthracis spores." She says: "It doesn't say it is licensed for one type of anthrax over another. There are three types: inhalation, cutaneous and intestinal.
The critics keep pointing to the 1996 IND application. They say the licence does not specify inhalation anthrax. Well, the licence merely specifies that it protects against the disease, regardless of what form you contract. If you follow the critics' line of argument, we would have to expose people to high levels of inhalation challenge. We have monkey studies which support the effectiveness of the product for all three types." In August the FDA gave a 25-page, point-by-point response to a Citizen's Petition filed by Major Dingle. It stated that in 1972, when the FDA assumed responsibility for regulating the drugs industry, independent panels reviewed the vaccine, concluding that it is "safe and effective". Referring to its own February 1998 inspection of BioPort, the FDA states: "Inspectional observations do not necessarily render the anthrax vaccine unsafe or ineffective." Their assurances are of little comfort to Ronda Wilson. She says: "Everybody said I sho! ! ! uld get over my anger. But anger is the only thing that gets me out of bed in the morning. I have lost my marriage, my career, my dreams, my future, my pleasures. I would have died for my country. But I didn't think I would die like this."http://www.nytimes.com/2002/12/03/international/middleeast/03POX.html?pagewanted=print&position=top
The C.I.A. is investigating an informant's accusation that Iraq obtained a particularly virulent strain of smallpox from a Russian scientist who worked in a smallpox lab in Moscow during Soviet times, senior American officials and foreign scientists say.
The officials said several American scientists were told in August that Iraq might have obtained the mysterious strain from Nelja N. Maltseva, a virologist who worked for more than 30 years at the Research Institute for Viral Preparations in Moscow before her death two years ago.
The information came to the American government from an informant whose identity has not been disclosed. The C.I.A. considered the information reliable enough that President Bush was briefed about its implications. The attempt to verify the information is continuing.
Dr. Maltseva is known to have visited Iraq on several occasions. Intelligence officials are trying to determine whether, as the informant told them, she traveled there as recently as 1990, officials said. The institute where she worked housed what Russia said was its entire national collection of 120 strains of smallpox, and some experts fear that she may have provided the Iraqis with a version that could be resistant to vaccines and could be more easily transmitted as a biological weapon.
The possibility that Iraq possesses this strain is one of several factors that has complicated Mr. Bush's decision, expected this week, about how many Americans should be vaccinated against smallpox, a disease that was officially eradicated in 1980.
The White House is expected to announce that despite the risk of vaccine-induced illness and death, it will authorize vaccinating those most at risk in the event of a smallpox outbreak - 500,000 members of the military who could be assigned to the Middle East for a war with Iraq and 500,000 civilian medical workers.
More broadly, the Russian government's refusal to share smallpox and other lethal germ strains for study by the United States, or to answer questions about the fate of such strains, has reinforced American concerns about whether Russia has abandoned what was once the world's most ambitious covert germ weapons program.
A year ago in Crawford, Tex., Mr. Bush and Russia's president, Vladimir V. Putin, issued a statement vowing to enhance cooperation against biological terrorism. But after an initial round of visits and a flurry of optimism, American officials said Russia had resisted repeated American requests for information about the Russian smallpox strains and help in the investigation into the anthrax attacks in the United States in October 2001.
"There is information we would like the Russians to share as a partner of ours," William Winkenwerder Jr., assistant secretary of defense for health affairs, said in an interview. "Because if there are strains that present a unique problem with respect to vaccines and treatment, it is in the interests of all freedom-loving people to have as much information as possible."
Cooperation on biological terrorism was not discussed at the meeting last week between Mr. Bush and Mr. Putin in St. Petersburg, American officials said, mainly because administration officials are not certain just how willing Mr. Putin is to enhance cooperation in this delicate area. They wonder if he is not doing more because of the military's hostility to sharing the information.
"The record so far suggests he is either unable or unwilling to push the military on this front," an administration official said. "We think it may be a little of both, but we're not really sure at this point or what to do about it."
Administration officials said the C.I.A. was still trying to determine whether Dr. Maltseva traveled to Iraq in 1990, and whether she shared a sample of what might be a particularly virulent smallpox strain with Iraqi scientists.
World Health Organization records in Geneva and interviews with scientists who worked with her confirmed that Dr. Maltseva visited Iraq at least twice, in 1972 and 1973, as part of the global campaign to eradicate smallpox.
Formerly secret Soviet records also show that in 1971, she was part of a covert mission to Aralsk, a port city in what was then the Soviet republic of Kazakhstan, north of the Aral Sea, to help stop an epidemic of smallpox. The Soviet Union did not report that outbreak to world health officials, as required by regulations.
Last June, experts from the Monterey Institute of International Studies, drawing on those Kazakh records and interviews with survivors, published a report saying the epidemic was a result of open-air tests of a particularly virulent smallpox strain on Vozrozhdeniye Island in the Aral Sea.
The island, known as Renaissance Island in English, is between Kazakhstan and another Central Asian country, Uzbekistan. The United States recently spent $6 million to help both countries, which are now independent, to decontaminate anthrax that the Soviet military buried in pits on the island.
Alan P. Zelicoff, co-author of the Monterey report and a scientist at Sandia National Laboratories, said the Aralsk outbreak was a watershed because it demonstrated that the smallpox virus was more easily spread than previously thought and that there may be a vaccine-resistant strain.
The organism can indeed be made to travel long distances, city-size perhaps, and there may be a vaccine-resistant strain or one that is more communicable than garden-variety smallpox, he said in an interview.
The Monterey report led American officials to question whether America's smallpox vaccine would be effective against the Aralsk strain or whether new vaccines or drugs might be needed if the strain was used in an attack. American concern increased in recent months after the White House was told that Dr. Maltseva might have shared the Aralsk strain with Iraqi scientists in 1990, administration officials said.
David Kelly, a former United Nations weapons inspector in Iraq, said there was a "resurgence of interest" in smallpox vaccine in Iraq in 1990, "but we have never known why."
A spokesman for the Russian Research Institute for Viral Preparations declined to comment on Dr. Maltseva or her work. Her daughter, a physician in Moscow, said she had no recollection of her mother's ever going to Iraq.
Svetlana Sergeyevna Marennikova, Dr. Maltseva's deputy in the Moscow laboratory, said in an interview that Dr. Maltseva had never gone to Iraq as far as she knew.
"She worked, and then when she got sick, she took a sick leave when she was no longer able to work," she said. "I don't know about Iraq. I didn't know about a trip there. I don't think she was there. I would know."
Donald A. Henderson, a senior adviser to the Department of Health and Human Services and a leader of the smallpox eradication campaign, described Dr. Maltseva as an "outgoing, hard-working scientist." He said she had traveled widely for the W.H.O in the eradication campaign.
While the organization's records show that she visited Iran, Iraq and Syria, Dr. Henderson recalled that he had also sent her to Pakistan to follow up on an outbreak there. "She clearly enjoyed the international travel circuit," he said.
Scientists and American officials have speculated that Iraq may have tried to buy the Aralsk strain from Dr. Maltseva, whose institute, like so many other scientific labs in Russia, has fallen on hard times since the Soviet Union's collapse.
Dr. Henderson said he was deeply disappointed that Dr. Maltseva and other Russian scientists with whom he had worked closely had helped cover up outbreaks of infectious diseases that should have been reported to the W.H.O.
The Russian government has never publicly acknowledged that Aralsk outbreak or that it tested smallpox in the open air. At a World Health Organization meeting in Lyon, France, last August, officials said, Russian virologists argued privately, in response to the Monterey report and news accounts, that there was no reason to believe that the Aralsk incident was anything other than a natural outbreak and that the strain was not particularly virulent - assertions with which some American experts concur.
American officials familiar with discussions about Aralsk said Russians scientists had confirmed that Dr. Maltseva took tissue samples from Aralsk back to her Moscow lab in 1971. But Russians have insisted that the material was destroyed when Russia quietly moved its smallpox strain collection from the Moscow lab to Vector, where the collection is now stored.
Many American scientists and officials, even those who doubt that the Aralsk strain is unusually potent, are deeply skeptical that the strain was destroyed. Former Soviet germ warfare scientists have privately told American officials that the military took control of these strains when the collection was moved.
American health and defense officials have tried without success to press Russia for help in securing a sample of the strain from the Aralsk smallpox outbreak.
The American officials have also been unable to obtain information that they believe could help federal investigators with their stalled inquiry into the anthrax attacks of October 2001, in which 5 people died and at least 17 were infected.
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